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What are the conversion rates from European Monetary Union (EMU) currencies to Euros?

We use single factors to convert the national currencies of European Monetary Union (EMU) members to euros for the period prior to their entry. They are based on the following irrevocable euro conversion rates, as adopted by the European Union (EU) Council on January 1, 1999:

1 euro 
= 40.3399 Belgian franc
= 1.95583 German mark
= 166.386 Spanish peseta
= 6.55957 French franc
= 0.787564 Irish pound
= 1936.27 Italian lira
= 40.3399 Luxembourg franc
= 2.20371 Netherlands guilder
= 13.7603 Austrian schilling
= 200.482 Portuguese escudo
= 5.94573 Finnish markka
= 340.750 Greek drachma (in effect from 2001)

The following are conversion rates for countries which joined after 1999:

1 euro 
= 7.53450 Croatian kuna (1 January 2023)
= 0.585274 Cypriot pound (1 January 2008)
= 15.6466 Estonian kroon (1 January 2011)
= 0.702804 Latvian lats (1 January 2014)
= 3.45280 Lithuanian litas (1 January 2015)
= 0.4293 Maltese lira (1 January 2008)
= 30.126 Slovak koruna (1 January 2009)
= 239.64 Slovenian tolar (1 January 2007)

Please note that historical data series valued in euros prior to the official adoption of the euro currency should be used with caution, and aggregations across countries should be avoided. Conversion rates are used to create a consistent time-series in euros for each country allowing for easy conversion back to the original national currency. Pre-1999 series however, in effect represent "Belgian euros," "German euros," "French euros," and so forth, and thus are applicable only within a given country. Estimates from 1999 onwards are measured consistently and are comparable across countries. 

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